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Deutschlands -Ludwigshafen am Rhein [FN 2]. Index der menschlichen Entwicklung. Das Allgemeine Gleichbehandlungsgesetz soll Benachteiligungen aufgrund von Geschlecht , Rasse , der ethnischen Herkunft, der Religion oder Weltanschauung , einer Behinderung , des Alters oder der sexuellen Identität etwa Homosexualität verhindern. Die entsprechenden Krustenprovinzen Grundgebirgsprovinzen werden klassisch vereinfachend Ost- Avalonia vgl. In anderen Projekten Wikinews Wikisource Wikivoyage. In der Liste der Volkszählungen in Deutschland finden sich Daten zur deutschen Bevölkerungsentwicklung für die Jahre — Die Bundesstaatlichkeit ist in zwei Ebenen im politischen System gegliedert: Im März war überdeutlich, dass das zentralistische Österreich es nicht erlauben würde, dass nur Teile sich einem deutschen Bundesstaat anschlossen. Auch die zunehmende Abwanderung deutscher Arbeitnehmer ins Ausland spielt neuerdings eine Rolle. Viele fassten den Entschluss zur Emigration , die meisten aber blieben in Deutschland. Erhards Weichenstellung mit der Freigabe der Preise wurde bis auf eine harte Probe gestellt, als die Arbeitslosenzahlen von Die Legionäre stammten aus sehr unterschiedlichen Regionen des Römischen Reiches, wie z. Der früher in den Flüssen häufige Lachs wurde im Zuge der Industrialisierung weitgehend ausgerottet, aber in den er-Jahren im Rhein wieder angesiedelt. Bei der Dynamik verdrängte die bayerische Landeshauptstadt Ingolstadt vom ersten Platz. Oxford University Press, Oxford , S. Die Regierung setzte auch erste Ansätze für richtungsweisende Veränderungen in der Sozial-, Renten- und Gesundheitspolitik siehe Agenda durch. Die Entstehung des Deutschen Reiches. Der lange Zeit vielerorts unergiebige ostdeutsche Arbeitsmarkt hatte auch eine fortgesetzte Abwanderung gerade junger Menschen zur Folge, die im Westen Beschäftigung suchten — ein anhaltendes demographisches Problem in den strukturschwachen Regionen Ostdeutschlands. Jahrbuch für Kultur und Geschichte des ersten Jahrtausends n. Der Bevölkerungsrückgang entspricht teilweise einer veränderten Altersstruktur, aber auch einer veränderten Bevölkerungszusammensetzung. Obwohl die Abgeordneten nach dem Grundgesetz nicht weisungsgebunden sind Art. Daher leitet sich die Bezeichnung Protestanten für Anhänger der evangelischen Glaubensrichtung ab.
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Treffen Sie sich in München. Treffen Sie sich in Frankfurt. In , a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet.
Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration , the energy transition Energiewende for a sustainable energy supply, the " Debt Brake " for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly pronatalism , and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.
Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU.
The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.
Germany is in Western and Central Europe , with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium lie to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest.
Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. With Switzerland and Austria, Germany also shares a border on the fresh-water Lake Constance , the third largest lake in Central Europe.
It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 64th largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps highest point: The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany lowest point: Germany's alpine glaciers are experiencing deglaciation.
Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash , timber, lignite , uranium , copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.
Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate.
This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic. Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: The east has a more continental climate: Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental.
In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.
Though the German climate is rarely extreme, there are occasional spikes of cold or heat. Winter temperatures can sometimes drop to two-digit negative temperatures for a few days in a row.
Conversely, summer can see periods of very high temperatures for a week or two. The recorded extremes are a maximum of The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.
Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches , oaks , and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation.
Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns , flowers , fungi , and mosses.
Wild animals include roe deer , wild boar , mouflon a subspecies of wild sheep , fox , badger , hare , and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.
In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves , as well as 98 nature parks. More than registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country.
Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in Germany. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region Germany is a federal , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.
The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.
Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
The president , Frank-Walter Steinmeier 19 March —present , is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers.
He is elected by the Bundesversammlung federal convention , an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.
The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident President of the Bundestag , who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.
The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag.
The chancellor, Angela Merkel 22 November —present , is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet , similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.
Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag Federal Diet and Bundesrat Federal Council , which together form the legislative body.
The Bundestag is elected through direct elections , by proportional representation mixed-member. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties.
In the German federal election, , the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.
The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in when it stood at Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.
The Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constitutional Court is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.
Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively.
The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Germany has a low murder rate with 0.
Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary.
As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts.
Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad  and maintains relations with more than countries. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.
The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.
The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In , Chancellor Gerhard Schröder 's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.
As of [update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly , service members, including about 9, volunteers. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.
In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.
But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.
As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.
Until , military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst civilian service , or a six-year commitment to voluntary emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross.
In conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a large capital stock , a low level of corruption,  and a high level of innovation.
Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.
Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank , which is headquartered in Frankfurt , the financial centre of continental Europe.
Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,  and is the fourth largest by production.
Of the world's largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in , the Fortune Global , 28 are headquartered in Germany.
Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises , known as the Mittelstand model.
More than 1, of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.
The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.
Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management , and the renewable energy commercialisation.
Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant.
Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy. Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in and respectively.
Along with Max Planck , he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics , in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.
Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz 's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.
The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world,  with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.
Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.
Germany's most-visited landmarks include e. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort. With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries.
The Roma and Sinti live throughout the whole federal territory and the Frisians live on Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.
Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad. After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.
The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after The largest part of people with immigrant background is made up of returning ethnic Germans Aussiedler and Spätaussiedler , followed by Turkish, European Union, and former Yugoslav citizens.
In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.
Many companies preferred to keep these workers employed in Germany after they had trained them and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased.
As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.
Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions.
Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust. Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.
It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.
Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country. According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2.
According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.
Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population  are Buddhism with , adherents, Judaism with , adherents, and Hinduism with some , adherents.
All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.
To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.
German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian.
Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.
It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.
Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.
Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.
It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.
However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.
Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.
In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Germany's system of hospices, called spitals , dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the s,  Since the s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system.
Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.
A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.
Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" ,  because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.
Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.
In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers.
Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel ; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period.
During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.
Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas.
Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.
Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.
Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter. German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic.
Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.
Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.
Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.
Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.
The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.
When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style , due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century.
Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing , Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.
Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.
Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.
German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer , Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.
Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.
German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.
After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film. The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.
One of the most successful German movie series of the s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report Schoolgirl Report.
Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.
German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e. International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.
Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, different types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.
German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.
Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions ,  the national alcoholic drink is beer.
The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.
Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. With more than 6. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.
Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.
Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].
The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships , more than any other.
He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.
Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.
Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.
Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.
For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe.
Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.
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Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic. German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.
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There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax and certain other taxes in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.
Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 8 March Statistisches Bundesamt Destatis , Retrieved 8 June Evangelical Church of Germany.
Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 24 OctoberIn Deutschland werden Verdichtungs- und Ballungsräume Agglomerationen nicht statistisch genau abgegrenzt. Die Vorkriegs-Einwohnerzahl wurde erst wieder um erreicht. Damit ist Deutschland eines der waldreichsten Länder in der Europäischen Union. Unzureichende Reparationsleistungen nahmen Belgien und Frankreich zum Anlass, in den Jahren bis auch das Ruhrgebiet zu besetzen. Das umsatzstärkste in Deutschland tätige Telekommunikationsunternehmen ist die Deutsche Telekom. Das Vandalenreich in Nordafrika, das Burgundenreich in Südostgallien und das Ostgotenreich in Beste Spielothek in Haugenried finden gingen bereits im 6.